The road less travelled m Scott Peck MD  - reading started 30.05 2013 on the way to Melbourne via the Overland from Adelaide South Australia. Te following are some collected thoughts, take-outs from that reading - it continues after these words, as I read more…...

In the book, Peck mentions / refers to various behavioural models / theories and therapies - see some of the detail of those at
They include
Freudian - The Driving Forces
Adlerian.     Alfred Adler
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
Reality Therapy
Solution-Focused Therapy
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
Existential Therapy

Weltanschauung and cognitive philosophy

Enrich Fromm who wrote Escape from freedom Allen Wheelis Book - How people hange - chapter 'freedom and necessity'

Chapter III
Freedom and Necessity
The realm of necessity, therefore, must comprise two categories: the subjective or arbitrary, and the objective or mandatory. Mandatory necessity-like natural law which cannot be disobeyed-is that which cannot be suspended. It derives from forces, conditions, events which lie beyond the self, not subject to choice, unyielding to will and effort. "I wish I had blue eyes,” "…wish I were twenty again,” ” … wish I could fly,” "…wish I lived in the court of the Sun King.” Such wishes are futile, choice is inoperative; the necessity impartially constrains. And since it cannot be put aside there’s not much arguing about it. "If you jump you will fall-whether or not you choose to Fly.” There is consensus, we don’t dwell on it, we accept. Read more at Behaviour / Understanding on rex's web

Four noble truths Buddha. Substantiates a basic foundation

Conceptual framework for Buddhist thought 

The Four Noble Truths are regarded as central to the teachings of Buddhism; they are said to provide a unifying theme, or conceptual framework, for all of Buddhist thought. According to the Buddhist tradition, the Buddha compared these four truths to the footprints of an elephant: just as the footprints of all the other animals can fit within the footprint of an elephant, in the same way, all of the teachings of the Buddha are contained within the teachings on the four noble truths.[d][c][e]

According to tradition, the Buddha taught on the four noble truths repeatedly throughout his lifetime, continually expanding and clarifying his meaning.[c]Walpola Rahula explains:[8]

The heart of the Buddha's teaching lies in the Four Noble Truths (Cattāri Ariyasaccāni) which he expounded in his very first sermon to his old colleagues, the five ascetics, at Isipatana (modern Sarnath) near Benares. In this sermon, as we have it in the original texts, these four Truths are given briefly. But there are innumerable places in the early Buddhist scriptures where they are explained again and again, with greater detail and in different ways. If we study the Four Noble Truths with the help of these references and explanations, we get a fairly good and accurate account of the essential teachings of the Buddha according to the original texts.

Read more at Behaviour / Understanding on rex's web

Weltanschauung and cognitive philosophy 

One of the most important concepts in cognitive philosophy and cognitive sciences is the German concept of Weltanschauung. This expression has often been used to refer to the "wide worldview" or "wide world perception" of a people, family, or person. The Weltanschauung of a people originates from the unique world experience of a people, which they experience over several millennia. The language of a people reflects the Weltanschauung of that people in the form of its syntactic structures and untranslatable connotations and its denotations.

The term 'Weltanschauung' is often wrongly attributed to Wilhelm von Humboldt the founder of German ethnolinguistics (see Trabant). As Jürgen Trabant points out, however, and as Underhll reminds us in his 'Humboldt, Worldview and Language' (2009), Humboldt's key concept was 'Weltansicht'. 'Weltanschauung', used first by Kant and later popularized by Hegel, was always used in German and later used in English to refer more to philosophies, ideologies and cultural or religious perspectives, than to linguistic communities and their mode of apprehending reality. 'Weltansicht' was used by Humboldt to refer to the overarching conceptual and censorial apprehension of reality shared by a linguistic community (Nation). But Humboldt maintained that the speaking human being was the core of language. Speech maintains worldviews. Worldviews are not prisons which contain and constrain us, they are the spaces we develop within, create and resist creatively in speaking together.

Worldview can be expressed as the fundamental cognitive, affective, and evaluative presuppositions a group of people make about the nature of things, and which they use to order their lives.[5][citation needed]

If it were possible to draw a map of the world on the basis of Weltanschauung, it would probably be seen to cross political borders — Weltanschauung is the product of political borders and common experiences of a people from a geographical region,[6] environmental-climatic conditions, the economic resources available, socio-cultural systems, and the language family.[6] (The work of the population geneticist Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza aims to show the gene-linguisticco-evolution of people).

Regardless of whether thought strongly shapes language and culture or vice versa, the worldview map of the world would likely be closely related to the linguistic map of the world. Similarly, it would probably almost coincide with a map of the world drawn on the basis of music across people.[7]


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As natural language becomes manifestations of world perception, the literature of a people with common Weltanschauung emerges as holisticrepresentations of the wide world perception of the people. Thus the extent and commonality between world folk-epics becomes a manifestation of the commonality and extent of a worldview.

Epic poems are shared often by people across political borders and across generations. Examples of such epics include the Nibelungenlied of the Germanicpeople, the Iliad for the Ancient Greeks and Hellenized societies, the Silappadhikaram of the South Indian people, the Ramayana and Mahabharata of the North Indian people, the Gilgamesh of the Mesopotamian-Sumerian civilization and the people of the Fertile Crescent at large, The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian nights) of the Arab world and the Sundiata epic of the Mandé people.

Development [edit]

While Apostel and his followers clearly hold that individuals can construct worldviews, other writers regard worldviews as operating at a community level, and/or in an unconscious way. For instance, if one's worldview is fixed by one's language, as according to a strong version of the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis, one would have to learn or invent a new language in order to construct a new worldview.

According to Apostel, a worldview is an ontology, or a descriptive model of the world. It should comprise these six elements:

  1. An explanation of the world
  2. futurology, answering the question "Where are we heading?"
  3. Values, answers to ethical questions: "What should we do?"
  4. praxeology, or methodology, or theory of action: "How should we attain our goals?"
  5. An epistemology, or theory of knowledge: "What is true and false?"
  6. An etiology. A constructed world-view should contain an account of its own "building blocks," its origins and construction.

Terror management theory 

Worldview, according to terror management theory (TMT), serves as a buffer against death anxiety.[8] It is theorised that living up to the ideals of one's worldview provides a sense of self-esteem which provides a sense of transcending the limits of human life (e.g. literally, as in religious belief in immortality, symbolically, as in art works or children to live on after one's death, or in contributions to one's culture).[8] Evidence in support of terror management theory includes a series of experiments by Jeff Schimel and colleagues in which a group of Canadians found to score highly on a measure of patriotism were asked to read an essay attacking the dominant Canadian worldview.[8] Using a test of death-thought accessibility (DTA), involving an ambiguous word completion test (e.g. "COFF__" could either be completed as either "COFFEE" or "COFFIN"), participants who had read the essay attacking their worldview were found to have a significantly higher level of DTA than the control group, who read a similar essay attacking Australian cultural values. Mood was also measured following the worldview threat, to test whether the increase in death thoughts following worldview threat were due to other causes, for example, anger at the attack on one's cultural worldview.[8] No significant changes on mood scales were found immediately following the worldview threat.[8]

To test the generalisability of these findings to groups and worldviews other than those of nationalistic Canadians, Schimel et al conducted a similar experiment on a group of religious individuals whose worldview included that of creationism.[8] Participants were asked to read an essay which argued in support of the theory of evolution, following which the same measure of DTA was taken as for the Canadian group.[8] Religious participants with a creationist worldview were found to have a significantly higher level of death-thought accessibility than those of the control group.[8]

Other studies have found that DTA increases following worldview threat. For example, Goldenberg et al found that highlighting the similarities between humans and other animals increases death-thought accessibility, as does attention to the physical rather than meaningful qualities of sex.[9]


The term denotes a comprehensive set of opinions, seen as an organic unity, about the world as the medium and exercise of human existence.Weltanschauung serves as a framework for generating various dimensions of human perception and experience like knowledgepoliticseconomicsreligion,culturescience and ethics. For example, worldview of causality as uni-directionalcyclic, or spiral generates a framework of the world that reflects these systems of causality. A uni-directional view of causality is present in some monotheistic views of the world with a beginning and an end and a single great force with a single end (e.g., Christianity and Islam), while a cyclic worldview of causality is present in religious traditions which are cyclic and seasonal and wherein events and experiences recur in systematic patterns (e.g., ZoroastrianismMithraism and Hinduism). These worldviews of causality not only underlie religious traditions but also other aspects of thought like the purpose of historypolitical and economic theories, and systems like democracy,authoritarianismanarchismcapitalismsocialism and communism.

The worldview of a linear and non-linear causality generates various related/conflicting disciplines and approaches in scientific thinking. The Weltanschauungof the temporal contiguity of act and event leads to underlying diversifications like determinism vs. free will. A worldview of free will leads to disciplines that are governed by simple laws that remain constant and are static and empirical in scientific method, while a worldview of determinism generates disciplines that are governed with generative systems and rationalistic in scientific method.[citation needed]

Some forms of philosophical naturalism and materialism reject the validity of entities inaccessible to natural science. They view the scientific method as the most reliable model for building an understanding of the world.

Other aspects [edit]

In The Language of the Third ReichWeltanschauungen came to designate the instinctive understanding of complex geo-political problems by the Nazis, which allowed them to act in the name of a supposedly higher ideal[10] and in accordance to their theory of the world. These acts, perceived outside that unique Weltanschauung, are now commonly perceived as acts of aggression, such as openly beginning invasions, twisting facts, and violating human rights.


Nishida Kitaro wrote extensively on "the Religious Worldview" in exploring the philosophical significance of Eastern religions.[11]

According to Neo-Calvinist David Naugle's World view: The History of a Concept, "Conceiving of Christianity as a worldview has been one of the most significant developments in the recent history of the church."[12]

The Christian thinker James W. Sire defines a worldview as "a commitment, a fundamental orientation of the heart, that can be expressed as a story or in a set of presuppositions (assumptions which may be true, partially true, or entirely false) which we hold (consciously or subconsciously, consistently or inconsistently) about the basic construction of reality, and that provides the foundation on which we live and move and have our being." He suggests that "we should all think in terms of worldviews, that is, with a consciousness not only of our own way of thought but also that of other people, so that we can first understand and then genuinely communicate with others in our pluralistic society."[13]


The philosophical importance of worldviews became increasingly clear during the 20th Century for a number of reasons, such as increasing contact between cultures, and the failure of some aspects of the Enlightenment project, such as the rationalist project of attaining all truth by reason alone. Mathematical logicshowed that fundamental choices of axioms were essential in deductive reasoning[14] and that, even having chosen axioms not everything that was true in a given logical system could be proven.[15] Some philosophers believe the problems extend to "the inconsistencies and failures which plagued the Enlightenment attempt to identify universal moral and rational principles";[16] although Enlightenment principles such as universal suffrage and the universal declaration of human rights are accepted, if not taken for granted, by many.[17]

Assessment and comparison of different worldviews [edit]

One can think of a worldview as comprising a number of basic beliefs which are philosophically equivalent to the axioms of the worldview considered as a logical theory. These basic beliefs cannot, by definition, be proven (in the logical sense) within the worldview precisely because they are axioms, and are typically argued from rather than argued for.[18] However their coherence can be explored philosophically and logically.

If two different worldviews have sufficient common beliefs it may be possible to have a constructive dialogue between them.[19]

On the other hand, if different worldviews are held to be basically incommensurate and irreconcilable, then the situation is one of cultural relativism and would therefore incur the standard criticisms from philosophical realists.[20][21][22] Additionally, religious believers might not wish to see their beliefs relativized into something that is only "true for them".[23][24] Subjective logic is a belief-reasoning formalism where beliefs explicitly are subjectively held by individuals but where a consensus between different worldviews can be achieved.[25]

A third alternative sees the worldview approach as only a methodological relativism, as a suspension judgment about the truth of various belief systems but not a declaration that there is no global truth. For instance, the religious philosopher Ninian Smart begins his Worldviews: Cross-cultural Explorations of Human Beliefs with "Exploring Religions and Analysing Worldviews" and argues for "the neutral, dispassionate study of different religious and secular systems—a process I call worldview analysis."[26]

The comparison of religious, philosophical or scientific worldviews is a delicate endeavor, because such worldviews start from different presuppositions and cognitive values. Clément Vidal[27] has proposed metaphilosophical criteria for the comparison of worldviews, classifying them in three broad categories:

  1. objective: objective consistency, scientificity, scope
  2. subjective: subjective consistency, personal utility, emotionality
  3. intersubjective: intersubjective consistency, collective utility, narrativity


According to Michael Lind, "a worldview is a more or less coherent understanding of the nature of reality, which permits its holders to interpret new information in light of their preconceptions. Clashes among worldviews cannot be ended by a simple appeal to facts. Even if rival sides agree on the facts, people may disagree on conclusions because of their different premises." This is why politicians often seem to talk past one another, or ascribe different meanings to the same events. Tribal or national wars are often the result of incompatible worldviews. Lind has organized American political worldviews into five categories:

  • Neoliberal Globalism believes that at home governments should provide only basic public goods like infrastructure, health care and security, and do so by market-friendly methods
  • Social Democratic Liberalism claims an economic safety net, protecting citizens from unemployment, sickness, poverty in old age and other disasters, is necessary if democratic government is to retain popular support.
  • Populist Nationalism tends to favor restriction of legal as well as illegal immigration to protect the core stock of the tribe-state from dilution by different races, ethnic groups or religions. Populist nationalism also tends to favor protectionist policies that shield workers and businesses, particularly small businesses, from foreign competition.
  • Libertarian Isolationism would abandon foreign alliances, dismantle most of its military, and return to a 19th-century pattern of decentralized government and an economy based on small businesses and small farms.
  • Green Malthusianism synthesizes mystical versions of environmentalism with alarm about population growth in the tradition of the Rev. Thomas Malthus

Not all people will fit neatly into only one category or the other, but Lind argues that their core worldview shapes how they frame their arguments.[28]

and then other thoughts variously picked up /out of the book
"Those things that hurt  instruct Benjamin Franklin"
Neurosis is always a substitute for genuine suffering. Carl Jung
Without healing the human spirit begins ti shrivel (our working forward into our problems, our solving)
Tools of techniques of suffering 
1 delaying gratification  ( do the hard yards first)
2 acceptance of responsibility 
3 dedication to truth 
4 balancing
Not about complexity of use but in the actual use of
The word 'love' doesn't make up for absence of quality time
The feeling of being a valued person is essential to good mental health
Fear of abandonment is innate and steps need to be made to make certain the inevitability of access
Inclination to ignore problems must be resisted Confront the pain early
Most executives look at problems and do little or nothing effective ( good clever people supported by others doing nothing / ineffective)
Longer problem ignored the large more intractable the situation
Life's problems can't be solved without solving them " my problem, up to me to solve" - no space for hope or blame
Neurosis or yacht ear disorder- simply put, disorders of responsibility 
Neurotic takes too much responsibility the CD not enough 
Beware of assigning to yourself speech patterns -neurotic  "I ought to", " I should", " I shouldn't" as they reflect back on self doubt and low self image and CD "I can't" , "I couldnt", "I had to" which denotes lack of power over self and self choice
A neurotic person can find it easier to challenge their problem as they are al ready admitting they gave a problem whilst a CD it's harder as they are not owning up to their problem
Few of us can escape being some what neurotic of CD in some part of our lives at some time
Must develop a willingness to 'suffer' continual self analysis / examination
If there is a feeling o.f being unloved it is easy to assume that one is. unloveable rather than others a biology to love
It is said that 'neurotics make themselves miserable whilst CD's make everyone about them miserable
CD's  -"because of you" will inhabit their conversation.
In so much as thei,r children except blame, they will become neurotic.
No problem can be solved until an individual takes responsibility
Eldridge Cleaver " if you are not part of the solution, you are part of the problem"
CD behaviour is noticeable when the individual s pattern of avoidance of responsibility is relatively gross
My time is my responsibility!
It is 'I' who decide. D not to change my life style, my pattern, my behaviour 
I can chose to keep a life style and in so choosing realise myself from resentment / victim
My experience is an inevitable consequence of my choices!
Dr Hilda Bruche - ' one common problem, the feeling of helplessness, the fear, inner conviction of being unable to cope or to change things. A sense of impotence. This is as much about a desire to escape the pain if freedom, of accountability. A feeling if impotency because they have given their foo
We're away to someone or something.
Ones adult life is a series of choices  and decisions.
Dedication to reality - the third tool 
Rather than to destroy our unworking map, we may chose to distort reality; too much time defending our current position and not enough time remapping
Transference: the outdated maps- a set of ways that was probably appropriate fine in childhood but inappropriate in adult hood.